Donald D. Hoffman is a professor of cognitive sciences at the University of California, Irvine. [Hoffman writes] “The neuroscientist David Marr argued that perception “delivers a true description of what is there.” Robert Trivers, an evolutionary theorist, concurs that “our sense organs have evolved to give us a marvelously detailed and accurate view of the outside world.” The cognitive scientist Anthony Chemero adds that “the objects of our accurate perceptions … exist in an animal-independent world.” That is, the objects of our accurate perceptions are real, in the sense that they exist even if no creature perceives them.”

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