The UC Irvine transportation economist Kevin Roth points out that L.A.’s subway has been estimated to relieve $1 to 4 billion worth of congestion every year in that city, where the share of people riding the subway is relatively low. ”If a few extra vehicles [off the road] can cause that in L.A., it’s not far-fetched that extra Uber vehicles circling around 24-7 will generate congestion costs that wipe out a nontrivial share of this consumer surplus,” Roth says.

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