Kim and coauthors argue that a country’s international security context influences individual bias against female leaders and propose three mechanisms: by increasing individual demand for defense, by shaping individual ideo- logical orientations, and by increasing society’s level of militarization. Using survey data of more than 200,000 individuals in 84 countries, they show the more hostile the country’s security environment, the more individuals are likely to agree that men make better political leaders than do women. They also find support for some of our proposed mechanisms and that the effect of security environments is greater for men than women. Their study presents the first cross-national evidence that the country’s international security environment correlates with bias against women leaders.

Light lunch will be provided.

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