The emerging literature on states’ migration diplomacy traditionally focuses on how cross-border mobility affects, and is affected by, governmental foreign policy strategies. Yet, little attention has been paid to strategic interactions between domestic political priorities, bilateral foreign policy negotiations, and supranational organizations, particularly the European Union. This talk draws inspiration from Robert Putnam’s work on the entanglement of domestic and international politics and puts forth a theorization of migration diplomacy as a three-level game. Beyond the importance of intergovernmental negotiations, Tsourapas proposes that migration diplomacy actors absorb domestic-level concerns as well as supranational pressures. Tsourapas tests this framework on the recent border crisis between Greece and Turkey in February/March 2020, and identifies how both Greek and Turkish use of migration diplomacy was shaped by three sets of policy goals: domestic, international, and supranational. Tsourapas concludes with a discussion of how such a framework can shed valuable light on border crises and the interplay between migration and foreign policymaking in the Mediterranean, and beyond.

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