In 2017, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences published a report titled: America's Languages: Investing in Language Education for the 21st Century. The report pointed out that: "The ability to understand, speak, read, and write in world languages, in addition to English, is critical to success in business, research, and international relations in the twenty-first century" and proposed a national strategy to improve access to as many languages as possible and to ensure that a useful level of proficiency is within every student's reach.

In this presentation, Valdes builds on Kroll & Dussias (2017) to examine the contexts and conditions for developing additional and heritage languages in the United States. Noting that American language competence has been considered a national challenge over many years (Lambert, 1986, Perkins, 1979, Simon, 1980), she examines the process of "curricularizing" language (Valdés, 2017, 2018, 2019) in instructional contexts to include: bilingual education, second language instruction, and heritage language teaching. It is her goal to underscore the similarities and differences between instructional contexts drawing from recent theoretical shifts in applied linguistics to problematize the social justice issues surrounding both the "support" and the "production" of bilinguals, that is, of individuals who have multi-contextual communicative expertise (Hall, Cheng & Carlson, 2006).

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