In  the  Russian  Empire  of  the  19th  and  early  20th centuries,  anti-Jewish  violence  (pogroms)  resulted  in the murder of half a million Jews, and the destruction of property and homes of many times more.  Until WWI, pogroms were relatively mild and spontaneous.  During WWI and the   Russian   Civil   War   (1914-1922),   pogroms   were   systematic   and   officially sanctioned.  Researchers regard these as early examples of officially sponsored racial warfare; and as precursors to full-scale genocide and the Holocaust (Dekel-Chen, et al, 2010).  

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