In 2016, Michael Tesler, a political scientist at the University of California, Irvine, reported on the results of a survey that asked one half of those polled whether they agreed with the statement: “Over the past few years, blacks have gotten less than they deserve.” The other half of poll respondents were asked a nearly identical question, substituting “average Americans” for blacks, so it read: “Over the past few years, average Americans have gotten less than they deserve.”

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