Also see the archival
list of Science's Compass: Enhanced
BIOLOGY AND MUSIC:Patricia M. Gray, Bernie Krause, Jelle Atema,
Roger Payne, Carol Krumhansl, Luis Baptista [HN27]
Enhanced: The Music of Nature and the Nature of
Our world is filled with innumerable natural
sounds, and from the earliest times humans have been intrigued and
inspired by this "soundscape." People who live close to nature
perceive a wider range of sounds than those of us living in
industrialized societies, who rely heavily on advances in sound
technology. The sounds of whales in the ocean, for example, were
first recorded in the 1940s, yet the Tlingit, Inuit, and other
seafaring tribes have been hearing them through the hulls of their
boats for millennia. Similarly, the ultralow frequency
communications of elephants [HN1]
have only just been recorded even though the Hutu and Tutsi tribes
of central East Africa have incorporated these sounds into their
songs and stories for centuries.
It is said that every known human culture has music. Music has
been defined as patterns of sound varying in pitch and time produced
for emotional, social, cultural, and cognitive purposes (1).
Is music-making in humans defined by our genes? [HN2]
Do other species show musical language and expression? If they do,
what kinds of behavior invoke music-making in these animals? Is
there evidence in the animal kingdom for the ability to create and
recreate a musical language with established musical sounds? How are
musical sounds used to communicate within and between species? Do
musical sounds in nature reveal a profound bond between all living
The Music of
Whales. The undersea songs of
humpback whales [HN3]
are similar in structure to bird and human songs and prove that
these marine mammals are inveterate composers. If songs can be
defined as "any rhythmic repeated utterance, whether by a bird, a
frog, an insect, a whale or a human being" (2),
then humpback whale songs [HN4]
are constructed according to laws that are strikingly similar to
those adopted by human composers.
· Singing humpbacks use rhythms similar to those in our own
music, yet they could just as easily formulate free-form, arrhythmic
· They use phrases of a similar length to ours--a few
seconds--and create themes out of several phrases before singing the
next theme. Their songs could easily "grow" organically without the
need for repetition but, like human composers, these marine mammals
prefer to reiterate their material.
· Whale songs fall between the length of a modern ballad and that
of a movement of a symphony. Perhaps they have chosen the same
length of performance as we have because, with their large cerebral
cortex, they have a similar attention span to humans.
· Even though they are capable of singing over a range of at
least seven octaves, humpbacks use musical intervals between their
notes that are similar to or the same as the intervals in our
· Whales mix percussive or noisy elements in their songs with
relatively pure tones, and do so in a ratio similar to that used by
humans in Western symphonic music.
· In some whale songs, the overall song structure is similar to
human compositions: a statement of theme, a section in which it is
elaborated, and then a return to a slightly modified version of the
original theme (that is, the ABA form) [HN5].
· The tone and timbre of many whale notes are similar to human
musical sounds. With an infinitude of possible sounds to choose
from, whales could easily prefer to make sounds that we would deem
unpleasant (roars, stutters, grunts).
· Most surprisingly, humpback songs contain repeating refrains
that form rhymes. This suggests that whales use rhyme in the same
way that we do: as a mnemonic device to help them remember complex
The fact that whale and human music have so much in common even
though our evolutionary paths have not intersected for 60 million
years, suggests that music may predate humans--that rather than
being the inventors of music, we are latecomers to the musical
Birds. Advances in audio technology
allowed the late Luis Baptista [HN6]
to draw fascinating parallels between bird song [HN7]
and human music (3).
For instance, when birds compose songs they often use the same
rhythmic variations, pitch relationships, permutations, and
combinations of notes as human composers. Thus, some bird songs
resemble musical compositions; for example, the canyon wren's [HN8]
trill cascades down the musical scale like the opening of Chopin's
"Revolutionary" Etude [HN9].
An examination of bird song reveals every elementary rhythmic
effect found in human music (4).
There are interval inversions, simple harmonic relations, and
retention of melody with change of key [HN10].
Many birds regularly transpose motifs to different keys (5).
Some birds pitch their songs to the same scale as Western music, one
possible reason for human attraction to these sounds. For example,
notes in the song of the wood thrush (Catharus mustelina)
are pitched such that they follow our musical scale very accurately
The interval between the first and second parts of the song of a
ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula) [HN12]
is often a full octave. The canyon wren sings in the chromatic scale
(which divides the octave into 12 semitones) (7)
and the hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) [HN13]
in the pentatonic scale (which consists of five different tones
within the octave) [HN14]
The simple melodic canon [HN15],
a frequent device in human composition based on imitation, is
reminiscent of the matched countersinging of many bird species. The
Socorro mockingbird (Mimodes graysoni) [HN16]
of Mexico sings a long series of short themes and its immediate
neighbor will then respond to each theme with the identical theme
The Californian marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris) [HN17]
may sing as many as 120 different themes in a fixed sequence. Each
theme is matched by its neighbor in a leader-follower sequence (in
music this is known as the call-response pattern) (10).
Not all bird sounds emanate from the vocal tract--some are
produced with "instruments" such as special feather structures,
others by the bird pounding on an object with a "preferred"
resonance. Perhaps the most remarkable example of a bird using an
instrument to produce sound is that of the palm cockatoo
(Probosciger aterrimus) [HN18]
of Northern Australia and New Guinea (11).
Each male breaks a twig from a tree, then shapes it into a
drumstick. The bird selects a hollow log with a preferred resonance
and then, holding the stick with its foot, drums on the log as part
of its courtship ritual.
Humans. Human music-making may vary
dramatically between cultures, but the fact that it is found in all
cultures suggests that there is a deep human need to create,
perform, and listen to music.
It appears that our Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal ancestors [HN19]
were as fond of music as we are. The discovery of prehistoric flutes
made of animal bone in France and Slovenia, ranging in age from 4000
to 53,000 years old, demonstrates that ancient civilizations devoted
considerable time and skill to constructing complicated musical
instruments (see the figure, below). Reconstructions of these
prehistoric flutes suggest that they resemble today's recorders [HN21]
It is possible that these ancient instruments even had a
sound-producing plug (a fipple), making them easier to play but more
difficult to make. Remarkably, many different types of scales can be
played on reconstructed prehistoric flutes, and the sounds are pure
and haunting. Given the sophistication of these 50,000-year-old
instruments, it is quite possible that humans have been making music
for several hundred thousand years.
No bones about Neanderthal
music. Reconstructions of (top) a
53,000-year-old Neanderthal flute made of bear bone found in
Slovenia (possibly recorder type), (middle) a
30,000-year-old French deer bone flute (most likely recorder type),
and (bottom) a 4000-year-old French vulture bone
flute (definitely recorder type).
CREDIT: JELLE ATEMA
The oral tradition of the Sami--the indigenous people of the
northern Scandinavian Peninsula and the Kola Peninsula of
present-day Russia--is contained in exclusively vocal songs called
Yoiks--consisting of short repeated cycles of nonsense syllables
without linguistic meaning--describe everyday life and always carry
personal meaning for the yoiker. Although not described in words,
the topic of a yoik may be a person, livelihood, an animal, a place,
or an aspect of nature. It is believed that musical knowledge is
acquired in part by the internalizing of frequently repeated
patterns in a particular musical style, thereby enabling listeners
to abstract recurring commonalities from the music that they hear
The ability to memorize and recognize musical patterns thereby
creates learned oral traditions that are passed on to subsequent
The ability to memorize and
recognize musical patterns is also central to whale and bird
music-making. These learning patterns may be vertical traditions
(when a behavior is passed from parent to offspring), oblique
traditions (when adults who are not blood-related pass the culture
to younger generations), or horizontal traditions (when peers learn
from each other).
Vertical musical tradition, such as the Sami yoik, is found in
all human cultures and in several finch species, including the zebra
finch (Taeniopygia castanostis) and the Northern bullfinch
(Pyrrhula pyrrhula) [HN23].
Oblique musical tradition is the central component of every music
lesson and is probably the most widespread mode of learning songs
among birds (14).
Horizontal musical tradition is found on every children's
playground, in hand-raised juvenile chaffinches (Fringilla
white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) [HN25],
and in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) [HN26],
which when raised together develop very similar songs (14).
Horizontal transfer of songs is also found among humpbacks--every
whale in the same breeding area sings the same song and the song
slowly evolves from year to year (2),
but whales from different oceans sing completely different songs. By
comparing any given whale song with a collection of song tapes, the
year and the ocean from which the songs came can be identified. A
recent report documented the extraordinary finding that the arrival
of a few humpbacks from the Indian Ocean (Australia's west coast) to
the Pacific Ocean (Australia's east coast) resulted in the resident
Pacific whales ditching their own song in favor of the newcomer's
ditty, a transformation that was complete within 3 years (15).
sound is a central component of natural habitats. Abstracting the
voice of a single creature from a habitat and trying to understand
it out of context is a little like trying to comprehend an elephant
by examining only a single hair at the tip of its tail (before
cloning, of course). The ambient sound of an environment mimics a
modern-day orchestra: the voice of each creature has its own
frequency, amplitude, timbre, and duration, and occupies a unique
niche among the other musicians (16).
This "animal orchestra" or biophony represents a unique sound
grouping for any given biome and sends a clear acoustical message.
Musical sounds form an exciting, natural conduit between members
of our own species, between our species and others, and between the
arts and sciences. By looking at musical commonalities, our
understanding of music is enlarging, and by viewing musical sounds
as an intuitive, nonverbal form of communication, we can better
understand our own development in a biodiverse world.
It has been postulated that there is an unproven (and probably
unprovable) concept called mathematical Platonism, which supposes
that there is a universal mathematics awaiting discovery. Is there a
universal music awaiting discovery, or is all music just a construct
of whatever mind is making it--human, bird, whale? The similarities
among human music, bird song, and whale song tempt one to speculate
that the Platonic alternative may exist--that there is a universal
music awaiting discovery.
It is not known when the ancient art of making music first began.
But, if it is as ancient as some believe, this could explain why we
find so much meaning and emotion in music even though we cannot
explain why it makes us feel the way it does. Such an impenetrable
vagueness about this most basic of human creations seems to signal
that the roots of music lie closer to our ancient lizard brain than
to our more recent reasoning cortex, that music has a more ancient
origin even than human language.
References and Notes
- The BioMusic Program is a program of National Musical Arts
(NMA), the resident ensemble of the National Academy of Sciences.
The program emerged from NMA's involvement in the National Forum
on BioDiversity conference co-hosted by the National Academy of
Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution in 1986. It now serves as
a think tank for a diverse group of scientists and musicians. The
BioMusic Program is a unique conduit between art and science, as
it seeks to examine music in all species and to explore and
understand its powerful role in all living things. This
Perspective summarizes presentations at the BioMusic Symposium
held as part of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science Annual Meeting (17 to 22 February 2000, Washington, DC).
We dedicate this Perspective to our colleague Dr. Luis Baptista
(deceased July 2000) [AAAS
meeting program] .
- R. Payne, Whale Songs: Musicality or Mantra? BioMusic
Symposium, AAAS Annual Meeting, 2000.
- L. F. Baptista, R. Keister, Why Bird Song Is Sometimes
Like Music, BioMusic Symposium, AAAS Annual Meeting,
- C. Hartshorne, Born to Sing (Indiana Univ. Press,
Bloomington, IN, 1973).
- E. A. Armstrong, A Study of Bird Song (Oxford Univ.
Press, London, 1963).
- D. J. Borror, C. R. Reese, Ohio J. Sci.
56, 177 (1956).
- C. Hartshorne, personal communication.
- L. Wing, Auk 68, 189 (1951).
- J. E. Martinez-Gomez, L. F. Baptista, in preparation.
- J. Verner, Living Bird 14, 263
(1975); D. E. Kroodsma, Auk 103, 189
- G. A. Wood, Corolla 8, 94 (1984).
- J. Atema, Old Bone Flutes: Tracing the Origins of Human
Music, BioMusic Symposium, AAAS Annual Meeting,
- C. L. Krumhansl et al., Music Percept.
17, 151 (1999); C. L. Krumhansl et al.,
Cognition 75, 13 (2000) [Medline].
- L. F. Baptista, S. L. L. Gaunt, in Social Influences on
Vocal Development, M. Hausberger, C. Snowdon, Eds. (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1997), pp. 23-40; L. F. Baptista et
al., Neth. J. Zool. 43, 17 (1993)
- M. J. Noad et al., Nature
408, 537 (2000) [Medline].
- B. Krause, The Niche Hypothesis: How Animals Taught Us to
Dance and Sing, BioMusic Symposium, AAAS Annual Meeting, 2000
P. M. Gray is at National Musical Arts, National Academy of
Sciences, Washington, DC 20016, USA. B. Krause is at Wild Sanctuary
Inc. J. Atema is at the Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA
02543, USA. R. Payne is at Ocean Alliance, Lincoln, MA 01773, USA.
C. Krumhansl is in the Department of Psychology, Cornell University,
Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. L. Baptista was at the California Academy of
Sciences, San Francisco, CA 99418, USA.
Related Resources on the World Wide
- Also in this issue is a related Enhanced
Perspective by M. Tramo titled "Music of the hemispheres."
- The Internet
Resource Guide for Zoology from BIOSIS includes a
section of links to animal
to Animal Sounds on the Net provides links to Internet
- The Animal
Bioacoustics Committee of the Acoustical Society of America
provides an introduction to
bioacoustics and links to Internet resources for bioacoustics.
- Links2Go provides links
to Internet resources on ethnomusicology.
Mercado, Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience,
Rutgers University, maintains a directory
of scientists interested in animal bioacoustics.
- WhaleNet, an
educational Web site focused on whales and marine research, is
sponsored by Wheelock
College, Boston, with support from the National Science
Foundation. A resource
page for sounds and bio-acoustics information and links is
- The Cetacean
Society International provides a photo gallery
and a collection
of Internet links.
- The Office of
Protected Resources of NOAA's National Marine Fisheries
Service provides information about whales,
dolphins, and porpoises. A section on humpback
whales is included.
- WhaleLink, a
presentation of the Vancouver
Aquarium Marine Science Centre, presents Orca FM with
recordings of killer whale communications. Information about humpback whale
song is also provided.
- BIRDNET, a
service of the Ornithological
Council, provides information resources and Web links related
to the scientific study of birds.
- OWL (Ornithological Web
Library) provides classified lists of Internet avian resources. A
collection of links to sound and image
resources for birds is included.
- Bird Links to the
World is a compendium of Internet resources provided by Bird Studies
- The Patuxent Wildlife
Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey makes available
Bird Identification InfoCenter, a guide to birds with audio
files of birdsongs.
- The Cornell Laboratory of
Ornithology (CLO) offers an online bird
guide with sound files and sounds of the week from
Library of Natural Sounds; an audio of the musician
wren (Cyphorhinus arada) is included. The CLO's Bioacoustics Research
Program develops and applies new techniques for recording and
analyzing animal sounds; information about whale, bird, and elephant
communication research is provided.
- R. Irwin,
Department of Biological Science, University of Tennessee at
Martin, provides lecture notes for an ornithology
course. Lecture notes on song are
Sinervo, Department of Biology, University of California,
Santa Cruz, provides lecture notes for a course
on behavioral ecology. A presentation
on sensory systems and communication is included.
Huber, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State
University, provides lecture
notes for an animal behavior
course. A presentation on bird
song learning is included.
Beshers, Integrative Biology Program, School of Life Sciences,
University of Illinois, provides lecture
notes for a course
on animal behavior.
- The Music of
Sound is a presentation of the Why Files: Science Behind
the News from the University of Wisconsin.
- The Summer 2000 issue of the Animal
Welfare Institute Quarterly had an article
about the BioMusic Symposium at the AAAS annual meeting.
- The Oakland Zoo
provides an introduction
(with a sound file) to the African elephant. The Elephant Information
Repository offers an introduction to elephant
senses. CLO's Bioacoustics Research
Program offers an introduction to the elephant
infrasound research of K. Payne. ABC News offers a
on Payne's elephant research titled "Listening to elephants:
Animals communicate infrasonically."
- ABC News makes
available an article
by M. Crenson titled "Born to sing? Scientists debate whether
there is a music gene."
- NOAA's National Marine
Mammal Laboratory provides an introduction to whales,
dolphins, and porpoises; a presentation on humpback
whales is included. Animal
Diversity Web, maintained by the Museum of Zoology of the
University of Michigan, provides information about the humpback
from the BBC Online has an
entry for the humpback
whale. The Hawaii
Whale Research Foundation provides information about humpback whale natural
Kailua, HI, offers a presentation on humpback
whales. The Island Marine
Institute Whale Resource Center, Lahaina, Maui, HI, offers
information on the behavior of
humpback whales. Virtual
Whales from Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, is a
visualization project to develop animation and sounds to assist in
interpreting the foraging behaviors of Pacific humpback whales.
- The National
Geographic Society makes available a National Public Radio
presentation on humpback
whales and their songs; included are an excerpt
and audio from the January 1979 National Geographic
article "Humpbacks: Their mysterious songs." The Newfoundland and
Labrador Web Site offers a presentation (with audio files)
whales. The Whale Center
of New England provides information about humpback whales
files of humpback whale calls. The Whale
Acoustics Project is a joint study of the National Marine Mammal
Laboratory and the Pacific
Marine Environmental Laboratory; an overview of the humpback
whale and a selection of humpback
whale vocalizations is offered. CLO's Bioacoustics Research
Program offers a presentation on whale
vocalizations. Nature provides a 5
November 1999 Science
Update by P. Ball titled "Sounding out the science of whale
- The Grove Concise
Dictionary of Music, available on the Web from the xrefer
Web site, defines the ternary (ABA)
form; a definition
is also provided in xrefer's Penguin
Dictionary of Music.
- The California Academy of
Sciences provides a profile of Luis
Baptista. National Public Radio's Living on Earth had an appreciation
of Baptista by L. Gravitz titled "Birds and Beethoven" as part of
the 28 July 2000
broadcast. The WhyFiles Music of Sound
includes a section about Baptista's
presentation on the science of music and natural sound at the
February 2000 AAAS annual meeting. BIRDNET
offers an obituary
- Bird Song
Files of Selected Species, maintained by S.
Hopp, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
University of Arizona, provides links to bird song resources on
the Internet. The Amazing World
of Birds offers presentations on birds and
hearing and bird
sounds. T. L.
George, Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University,
Arcata, CA, offers lecture notes on bird
song for an ornithology course.
C. Evans, Animal
Behaviour Laboratory, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia,
offers a presentation on song
learning as part of a series of animal behavior
Jacobs, Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Montana
State University, Bozeman, provides lecture
notes on birdsong as a model system for language for a neuroethology
course; lecture notes on the physiology
of the song system are also provided. M.
van Staaden, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green
State University, offers lecture
notes (and part
two) on bird song for a neuroethology
course. The August-September 1996 issue of National
Wildlife had an article about
bird song by P. Nelson titled "A song for every occasion."
Diversity Web provides information (with sound files) about
wren. The online field
guide to birds available from eNature.com has an
entry (with a sound file) for the canyon
California Natural History, a multimedia textbook provided by
Towner, Department of Biology, Loyola Marymount University,
Los Angeles, includes information (with a sound file) about the canyon
- The ChopinFiles Web site provides
information about Chopin's Revolutionary
Etude and an audio excerpt of the music. J. Smeet's Classical
Composers Database provides a biography of Frédéric
Chopin with links to Internet resources.
- The Oxford
Dictionary of Music, available from xrefer, provides
definitions of interval and key; harmonics
and melody are
defined in xrefer's Grove
Dictionary of Music.
- The Patuxent
Bird InfoCenter has an entry (with a sound file) for the wood
thrush. The Cornell online
bird guide includes an entry (with a sound file) for the wood thrush. The
guide to birds has an entry (with a sound file) for the wood
- An entry (with a sound file) for the ruby-crowned
kinglet is included in the Patuxent
Bird InfoCenter. The eNature.com field
guide to birds has an entry for the ruby-crowned
Diversity Web provides sound recordings of the ruby-crowned
- The Patuxent
Bird InfoCenter provides information (with a sound file) about
thrush. The Cornell online
bird guide has an entry (with a sound file) for the hermit thrush. The
guide to birds has an entry (with sound file) for the hermit
Diversity Web provides sound
recordings of the hermit thrush.
- The Penguin
Dictionary of Music, available from xrefer, defines chromatic
scales. Britannica. com
provides an Encyclopædia Britannica overview of scales
and introductions to the diatonic,
- The Penguin
Dictionary of Music defines canon.
Martínez-Gómez, Department of Biology, University of Missouri,
offers information about the Socorro
- The Patuxent
Bird InfoCenter has an entry (with a sound file) for the marsh
wren. The eNature.com field
guide to birds has an entry (with sound file) for the marsh
Diversity Web provides a photo and sound recording of the marsh
Birding/Wild Birds offers a presentation on the palm
cockatoo. The Smithsonian National
Zoological Park offers a presentation on the palm
cockatoo. The Riverbanks Zoo and
Botanical Garden, Columbia, SC, provides information about the
Radio from the University of Wisconsin presents a feature
on palm cockatoo drumming.
- The Encyclopædia Britannica article
evolution has sections on Cro-Magnons
A collection of links to Internet resources on Cro-Magnons
is provided by T.
Roufs, College of Liberal Arts, University of Minnesota,
Duluth. Neanderthals and
Modern Humans -- A Regional Guide is maintained by S. Brown. Neandertals:
A Cyber Perspective is a student Web project by K. Ramanan,
Indiana State University; the presentation on Neanderthal
art includes a section on the flute.
- The Institute of
Archeaology of the Scientific Research
Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts makes
available the initial report about
the Neanderthal flute by I. Turk, J. Dirjec, and B. Kavur titled
"The oldest musical instrument in Europe discovered in Slovenia?"
The Exploritorium in
San Francisco offers a 21 February 2000 dispatch
from the AAAS annual meeting by M. Miller titled "Music of the
Neanderthals." MSNBC.com offers
a 21 February 2000 feature by
A. Boyle titled "Listening to the sounds of science: From ancient
flutes to flame-based music." The 22 March 2000 Science
Update radio broadcast on the Neanderthal
flute and related resources is available on the AAAS Science
NetLinks Web site. The WhyFiles Music of Sound
includes a section on the Neanderthal flute.
A musicological analysis of the Neanderthal
flute is provided by R. Fink; an update
is included. The September 1997 issue of Scientific American had a
and the Citizen feature by K. Wong titled "Neanderthal notes:
Did ancient humans play modern scales?" Brookhaven National Laboratory
offers a presentation
titled "9,000-year-old flutes from Jiahu, Henan Province, China."
ABC News had a
about this discovery titled "Ancient flute plays on."
- The Recorder
Home Page maintained by N. Lander includes a history of
the instrument. B. Santin's Wooden Flutes
Web site offers a historical
introduction to the wooden flute.
- The Finnish
Music Information Centre makes available an article
by H. Laitinen titled "The many faces of the yoik." The May 1999 issue
of the online magazine Folkworld had an article by U.
Länsman titled "Sámi culture and the yoik." The Sámi
of Far Northern Europe is a collection of links to Internet
resources provided on the Arctic
Circle Web site. The Euromosaic
Report Web Site offers information about the Sami
and links to Internet resources.
Williams, Biology Department, Williams College, Williamstown,
MA, provides information about the zebra finch and its song on her
Songs and Bird Brains Web page and offers recordings in the Zebra Finch Song
Archive. The Laboratory
of Comparative Psychoacoustics, Department of Psychology,
University of Maryland, offers a presentation on the zebra
finch and its vocalizations. Britannica.com provides an
Encyclopædia Britannica introduction to the bullfinch.
Diversity Web offers information about the Eurasian
bullfinch (also known as the common or Northern bullfinch).
The BBC's Wildfacts
has an entry (with a sound file) for the bullfinch.
A. Massi's European
Birds: Songs and Sonagrams has an entry for the song of the Eurasian
- Robinson Research's World of
Knowledge offers a presentation on the chaffinch.
The BBC's Wildfacts
offers an entry (with a sound file) for the chaffinch.
A. Massi's European
Birds: Songs and Sonagrams has an entry for the song of the chaffinch.
- The Cornell online
bird guide includes an entry (with a sound file) for the white-crowned
sparrow. The eNature.com field
guide to birds has an entry (with a sound file) for the white-crowned
sparrow. The Spring 1999 issue of California
Wild, published by the California Academy of
Sciences, had an article
by L. Baptista about the dialects of the white-crowned sparrow; a
on the white-crowned sparrow and its song is also provided. D.
Laboratory of Bioacoustics, Department of Evolution, Ecology
and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, offers a presentation
on song learning in the white-crowned sparrow.
- The Cornell online
bird guide includes an entry (with a sound file) for Anna's
hummingbird. The eNature.com field
guide to birds has an entry (with a sound file) for Anna's
- P. Gray is at the National
Musical Arts, National Academy of Sciences. B. Krause is at Wild Sanctuary,
Atema is in the Department of
Biology, Boston University, and the Boston University Marine
Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA. R.
Payne is at Ocean
Krumhansl is in the Department of Psychology,
Cornell University. L. Baptista was in the Department of
Ornithology and Mammalogy, California Academy of Sciences.
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- BIOLOGY AND MUSIC:
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Number 5501, Issue of 5 Jan 2001, pp. 52-54.
Copyright © 2001 by The American Association for the
Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.